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The Uninsured: A Primer - Key Facts about Health Insurance on the Eve of Coverage Expansions

Tables

Table 1:  Characteristics of the Nonelderly Uninsured Population, 2012

Table 2:  Characteristics of Uninsured Children, 2012

Table 3:  Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly, 2012

Table 4:  Health Insurance Coverage of Children, 2012

Table 5:  Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly by State, 2011-2012

Table 6:  Health Insurance Coverage of Children by State, 2011-2012

Table 1: Characteristics of the Nonelderly Uninsured Population, 2012
Nonelderly (millions) Percent of Nonelderly Uninsured (millions) Percent of Uninsured Uninsured Rate
Total – Nonelderly
266.9  100.0%  47.3  100.0%  17.7%
Age
Children – Total 78.2 29.3% 7.2 15.2% 9.2%
Adults – Total 188.7 70.7% 40.1 84.8% 21.3%
Adults 19-25 30.0 11.2% 8.2 17.3% 27.4%
Adults 26-34 37.3 14.0% 10.2 21.6% 27.4%
Adults 35-44 39.6 14.8% 8.4 17.8% 21.3%
Adults 45-54 43.4 16.2% 7.9 16.7% 18.2%
Adults 55-64 38.5 14.4% 5.4 11.4% 14.0%
Annual Family Income
<$20,000 66.3 24.9% 21.9 46.4% 33.1%
$20,000 – $39,999 51.4 19.2% 13.4 28.3% 26.0%
$40,000 + 149.2 55.9% 12.0 25.4% 8.0%
Family Poverty Level
≤138% 76.7 28.7% 24.0 50.7% 31.2%
…<100% 56.9 21.3% 18.1 38.3% 31.8%
…100-138% 19.8 7.4% 5.8 12.3% 29.6%
139-400% 99.9 37.4% 18.4 38.9% 18.4%
…139-250% 48.6 18.2% 11.7 24.7% 24.0%
…251-400% 51.3 19.2% 6.7 14.2% 13.1%
>400% 90.3 33.8% 4.9 10.4% 5.5%
Household Type
Single Adults Living Alone 20.8 7.8% 4.3 9.1% 20.8%
Single Adults Living Together 35.3 13.2% 11.8 25.0% 33.4%
Married Adults 56.2 21.0% 8.7 18.3% 15.4%
1 Parent with children
35.3 13.2% 6.3 13.4% 18.0%
2 Parents with children
105.0 39.3% 12.7 26.8% 12.1%
Multigenerational/Other with children
14.4 5.4% 3.5 7.4% 24.4%
Family Work Status
2 Full-time 66.0 24.7% 5.2 10.9% 7.8%
1 Full-time 137.9 51.7% 24.8 52.4% 18.0%
Only Part-time
24.5 9.2% 7.3 15.5% 30.0%
Non-Workers 38.5 14.4% 10.0 21.2% 26.1%
Race/Ethnicity
White only (non-Hispanic) 160.5 60.2% 21.3 45.0% 13.3%
Black only (non-Hispanic) 33.7 12.6% 6.9 14.7% 20.6%
Hispanic 49.9 18.7% 15.3 32.4% 30.7%
Asian/S. Pacific Islander only 15.1 5.7% 2.5 5.2% 16.3%
Am. Indian/Alaska Native 2.0 0.8% 0.5 1.1% 25.6%
Two or More Races
5.5 2.1% 0.8 1.6% 13.6%
Citizenship
U.S. citizen – native 232.0 86.9% 34.8 73.5% 15.0%
U.S. citizen – naturalized 14.3 5.4% 3.2 6.8% 22.6%
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for < 5 years 4.6 1.7% 1.7 3.6% 37.8%
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for 5+ years 16.0 6.0% 7.6 16.0% 47.4%
Health Status
Excellent/Very Good 183.1 68.6% 28.1 59.4% 15.4%
Good 60.2 22.5% 14.2 29.9% 23.5%
Fair/Poor 23.7 8.9% 5.1 10.7% 21.3%

( ) = Estimate has a large 95% confidence interval of +/- 5.0 – 7.9 percentage points.  Estimates with larger margins of error or with standard errors greater than 30% are not provided.

Table 2: Characteristics of Uninsured Children, 2012
 Children (millions)  Percent of Children  Uninsured (millions)  Percent of Uninsured  Uninsured Rate
Total – Childrenh
78.2 100.0% 7.2 100.0% 9.2%
Age
<1 3.9 5.0% 0.5 6.3% 11.7%
1-5 20.2 25.8% 1.6 21.8% 7.8%
6-18 54.1 69.2% 5.2 71.9% 9.6%
Family Income
<$20,000 19.2 24.6% 2.7 37.9% 14.2%
$20,000 – $39,999 14.2 18.2% 1.9 26.2% 13.3%
$40,000 + 44.7 57.2% 2.6 35.9% 5.8%
Family Poverty Level
≤138% 27.9 35.7% 3.9 54.1% 14.0%
…<100% 21.1 27.0% 3.0 41.6% 14.2%
…100-138% 6.8 8.6% 0.9 12.5% 13.3%
139-400% 29.8 38.1% 2.7 37.3% 9.0%
…139-250% 15.3 19.5% 1.8 24.5% 11.6%
…251-400% 14.5 18.6% 0.9 12.8% 6.3%
>400% 20.5 26.2% 0.6 8.5% 3.0%
Household Type
1 Parent
21.2 27.1% 2.2 30.1% 10.2%
2 Parents
50.2 64.2% 3.9 53.9% 7.7%
Multigenerational/Other
6.2 7.9% 1.0 14.2% 16.5%
Family Work Status
2 Full-time 20.4 26.1% 1.1 15.7% 5.5%
1 Full-time 40.7 52.1% 3.7 51.8% 9.1%
Only Part-time
6.4 8.2% 0.8 10.6% 11.9%
Non-Workers 10.7 13.6% 1.6 21.9% 14.8%
Race/Ethnicity
White only (non-Hispanic) 41.2 52.7% 2.8 38.8% 6.8%
Black only (non-Hispanic) 10.8 13.8% 1.0 14.2% 9.5%
Hispanic 18.7 23.9% 2.7 38.2% 14.7%
Asian/S. Pacific Islander only 3.9 5.0% 0.3 4.5% 8.4%
Am. Indian/Alaska Native 0.7 0.9% 0.1 1.5% 15.5%
Two or More Races
3.0 3.8% 0.2 2.8% 6.7%
Citizenship
U.S. Citizen 76.1 97.4% 6.6 91.7% 8.7%
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for < 5 years 0.9 1.1% 0.2 3.1% (25.4%)
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for 5+ years 1.2 1.5% 0.4 5.2% 32.2%
Health Status
Excellent/Very Good 64.2 82.1% 5.6 78.5% 8.8%
Good 12.4 15.8% 1.4 19.6% 11.4%
Fair/Poor 1.6 2.1% 0.1 2.0% 8.7%
( ) = Estimate has a large 95% confidence interval of +/- 5.0 – 7.9 percentage points.  Estimates with larger margins of error or with standard errors greater than 30% are not provided.
Table 3: Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly, 2012
Percent Distribution by Coverage Type
 Nonelderly (millions) Private   Public  Uninsured
 Employer  Individual  Medicaid  Other
Total – Nonelderlya 266.9 55.7% 5.8% 17.9% 2.9% 17.7%
Age
Children – Total 78.2 49.7% 4.0% 35.5% 1.6% 9.2%
Adults – Total 188.7 58.1% 6.6% 10.6% 3.5% 21.3%
Adults 19-25 30.0 42.8% 13.7% 14.2% 1.9% 27.4%
Adults 26-34 37.3 55.1% 4.7% 11.0% 1.7% 27.4%
Adults 35-44 39.6 62.8% 4.2% 9.7% 2.1% 21.3%
Adults 45-54 43.4 63.7% 5.3% 9.2% 3.5% 18.2%
Adults 55-64 38.5 61.9% 6.7% 9.7% 7.8% 14.0%
Annual Family Income
<$20,000 66.3 16.6% 6.8% 39.2% 4.4% 33.1%
$20,000 – $39,999 51.4 40.4% 6.4% 23.5% 3.7% 26.0%
$40,000 + 149.2 78.3% 5.2% 6.5% 2.0% 8.0%
Family Poverty Level
≤138% 76.7 16.9% 5.9% 42.3% 3.7% 31.2%
…<100% 56.9 14.1% 5.8% 45.0% 3.3% 31.8%
…100-138% 19.8 25.1% 6.1% 34.4% 4.8% 29.6%
139-400% 99.9 59.1% 6.5% 12.6% 3.4% 18.4%
…139-250% 48.6 46.3% 6.8% 18.5% 4.3% 24.0%
…251-400% 51.3 71.1% 6.2% 6.9% 2.6% 13.1%
>400% 90.3 84.8% 5.0% 3.0% 1.8% 5.5%
Household Type
Single Adults Living Alone 20.8 51.7% 9.1% 12.6% 5.8% 20.8%
Single Adults Living Together 35.3 40.8% 10.2% 12.0% 3.5% 33.4%
Married Adults 56.2 67.3% 6.1% 6.6% 4.7% 15.4%
1 Parent with children
35.3 32.0% 4.8% 43.6% 1.6% 18.0%
2 Parents with children
105.0 66.0% 4.2% 16.0% 1.7% 12.1%
Multigenerational/Other with children
14.4 34.9% 3.2% 34.7% 2.9% 24.4%
Family Work Status
2 Full-time 66.0 81.7% 3.6% 5.8% 1.1% 7.8%
1 Full-time 137.9 59.8% 5.8% 14.5% 1.9% 18.0%
Only Part-time
24.5 26.3% 11.1% 29.5% 3.2% 30.0%
Non-Workers 38.5 15.0% 6.4% 43.0% 9.5% 26.1%
Race/Ethnicity
White only (non-Hispanic) 160.5 64.2% 7.0% 12.4% 3.2% 13.3%
Black only (non-Hispanic) 33.7 43.3% 3.5% 28.9% 3.8% 20.6%
Hispanic 49.9 36.3% 3.3% 27.9% 1.8% 30.7%
Asian/S. Pacific Islander only 15.1 61.5% 7.3% 13.1% 1.8% 16.3%
Am. Indian/Alaska Native 2.0 (35.5%) 4.2% (31.4%) 3.4% 25.6%
Two or More Racesg 5.5 50.4% 5.2% 26.9% 3.9% 13.6%
Citizenship
U.S. citizen – native 232.0 57.4% 5.9% 18.5% 3.1% 15.0%
U.S. citizen – naturalized 14.3 56.4% 6.2% 12.3% 2.4% 22.6%
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for < 5 years 4.6 39.3% 6.8% 15.2% 1.0% 37.8%
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for 5+ years 16.0 34.1% 3.5% 13.9% 1.1% 47.4%
Health Status
Excellent/Very Good 183.1 61.0% 6.5% 15.5% 1.7% 15.4%
Good 60.2 49.0% 4.8% 19.6% 3.1% 23.5%
Fair/Poor 23.7 31.2% 3.4% 31.9% 12.1% 21.3%

( ) = Estimate has a large 95% confidence interval of +/- 5.0 – 7.9 percentage points.  Estimates with larger margins of error or with standard errors greater than 30% are not provided.

Table 4: Health Insurance Coverage of Children, 2012
Percent Distribution by Coverage Type
   Children (millions) Private Public   Uninsured
 Employer Individual  Medicaid  Other 
Total – Children
78.2 49.7% 4.0% 35.5% 1.6% 9.2%
Age
<1 3.9 43.4% 2.1% 40.9% 1.9% 11.7%
1-5 20.2 46.7% 2.6% 41.2% 1.8% 7.8%
6-18 54.1 51.3% 4.6% 33.0% 1.6% 9.6%
Annual Family Income
<$20,000 19.2 10.7% 2.6% 71.0% 1.5% 14.2%
$20,000 – $39,999 14.2 26.5% 3.5% 55.0% 1.8% 13.3%
$40,000 + 44.7 73.9% 4.7% 14.1% 1.6% 5.8%
Family Poverty Level
≤138% 27.9 13.4% 2.5% 68.6% 1.5% 14.0%
…<100% 21.1 10.5% 2.5% 71.2% 1.6% 14.2%
…100-138% 6.8 22.5% 2.7% 60.3% 1.1% 13.3%
139-400% 29.8 59.5% 4.8% 24.7% 2.0% 9.0%
…139-250% 15.3 46.7% 4.4% 35.2% 2.1% 11.6%
…251-400% 14.5 73.0% 5.1% 13.6% 1.9% 6.3%
>400% 20.5 84.9% 4.7% 6.2% 1.2% 3.0%
Household Typei
1 Parent with children
21.2 28.5% 4.0% 56.2% 1.1% 10.2%
2 Parents with children
50.2 62.2% 3.9% 24.4% 1.8% 7.7%
Multigenerational/Other with children
6.2 24.4% 2.8% 54.8% 1.5% 16.5%
Family Work Status
2 Full-time 20.4 76.7% 3.1% 13.6% 1.0% 5.5%
1 Full-time 40.7 51.4% 4.4% 33.2% 1.8% 9.1%
Only Part-time
6.4 16.9% 5.4% 64.2% 1.5% 11.9%
Non-Workers 10.7 11.2% 2.8% 69.1% 2.1% 14.8%
Race/Ethnicity
White only (non-Hispanic) 41.2 61.9% 5.1% 24.6% 1.6% 6.8%
Black only (non-Hispanic) 10.8 34.0% 2.1% 52.7% 1.7% 9.5%
Hispanic 18.7 30.8% 2.4% 50.6% 1.5% 14.7%
Asian/S. Pacific Islander only 3.9 61.1% 5.3% 24.4% 0.9% 8.4%
Am. Indian/Alaska Native 0.7 2.1% 0.8% 15.5%
Two or More Races
3.0 48.1% 3.0% 38.8% 3.3% 6.7%
Citizenship
U.S. citizen 76.1 50.2% 3.9% 35.6% 1.6% 8.7%
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for < 5 years 0.9 (37.8%) 6.0% (29.3%) 1.4% (25.4%)
Non-U.S. citizen, resident for 5+ years 1.2 27.6% 4.0% 35.3% 0.9% 32.2%
Health Status
Excellent/Very Good 64.2 53.3% 4.2% 32.0% 1.7% 8.8%
Good 12.4 34.4% 2.8% 50.0% 1.4% 11.4%
Fair/Poor 1.6 23.8% 2.9% 63.2% 1.3% 8.7%
( ) = Estimate has a large 95% confidence interval of +/- 5.0 – 7.9 percentage points.  Estimates with larger margins of error or with standard errors greater than 30% are not provided.
Table 5: Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly by State, 2011-2012
     Percent Distribution by Coverage Type
Nonelderly (thousands)
  Private   Public  Uninsured
Employer Individual Medicaid Other
 
United States 266,647 55.7% 5.7% 17.7% 2.9% 17.9%
Alabama 4,136 54.9% 5.7% 18.1% 5.3% 16.0%
Alaska 632 54.3% 3.7% 15.2% 6.4% 20.5%
Arizona 5,665 52.2% 4.9% 20.1% 2.8% 20.1%
Arkansas 2,446 47.6% 4.8% 21.5% 5.2% 20.9%
California 33,302 50.3% 6.7% 20.0% 2.0% 21.0%
Colorado 4,456 58.8% 8.3% 13.9% 2.5% 16.5%
Connecticut 3,007 67.0% 5.7% 15.9% 1.8% 9.5%
Delaware 758 60.3% 4.1% 20.4% 3.0% 12.2%
District of Columbia 548 55.1% 7.7% 26.8% 1.3% 9.1%
Florida 15,635 49.3% 6.4% 15.1% 4.4% 24.7%
Georgia 8,541 52.8% 5.3% 15.5% 4.7% 21.7%
Hawaii 1,122 62.3% 4.3% 20.0% 4.2% 9.1%
Idaho 1,349 55.1% 8.4% 14.9% 2.4% 19.1%
Illinois 10,965 57.7% 5.5% 18.5% 2.2% 16.2%
Indiana 5,417 60.3% 3.6% 18.6% 2.6% 14.8%
Iowa 2,604 61.0% 8.4% 17.3% 1.7% 11.6%
Kansas 2,382 58.3% 7.3% 15.0% 3.9% 15.5%
Kentucky 3,740 54.9% 4.8% 18.8% 4.1% 17.3%
Louisiana 3,866 50.2% 3.8% 21.0% 2.6% 22.4%
Maine 1,121 56.1% 4.7% 24.3% 3.4% 11.5%
Maryland 5,071 64.8% 5.1% 13.1% 2.1% 14.9%
Massachusetts 5,578 66.0% 5.1% 23.6% 1.0% 4.4%
Michigan 8,251 59.5% 5.8% 19.2% 2.1% 13.5%
Minnesota 4,591 65.9% 6.8% 15.3% 2.0% 10.1%
Mississippi 2,504 51.6% 5.0% 21.6% 3.7% 18.1%
Missouri 5,057 58.5% 7.0% 14.8% 3.2% 16.5%
Montana 814 49.8% 9.0% 14.3% 5.0% 22.0%
Nebraska 1,586 60.8% 9.5% 11.6% 3.4% 14.7%
Nevada 2,341 54.2% 5.2% 10.9% 3.1% 26.5%
New Hampshire 1,119 68.5% 5.6% 9.1% 2.7% 14.2%
New Jersey 7,433 63.3% 4.6% 13.4% 1.8% 16.8%
New Mexico 1,736 44.1% 5.4% 22.8% 3.5% 24.3%
New York 16,582 55.7% 5.0% 24.1% 1.8% 13.4%
North Carolina 8,114 53.7% 5.7% 17.6% 3.4% 19.6%
North Dakota 593 65.1% 10.6% 10.0% 2.5% 11.8%
Ohio 9,619 58.1% 5.8% 18.1% 2.8% 15.2%
Oklahoma 3,203 51.6% 5.4% 19.2% 4.1% 19.8%
Oregon 3,308 53.9% 8.0% 18.4% 2.8% 16.9%
Pennsylvania 10,753 61.7% 6.5% 16.7% 1.9% 13.3%
Rhode Island 872 59.1% 5.4% 18.6% 2.6% 14.3%
South Carolina 3,975 54.0% 5.4% 17.7% 3.6% 19.3%
South Dakota 701 55.7% 10.2% 15.5% 2.8% 15.9%
Tennessee 5,412 53.1% 5.9% 19.9% 5.4% 15.7%
Texas 23,012 50.4% 4.2% 15.8% 2.8% 26.8%
Utah 2,549 63.8% 7.1% 11.1% 2.1% 16.0%
Vermont 515 55.6% 5.9% 27.1% 2.1% 9.3%
Virginia 6,843 62.8% 6.0% 10.9% 5.4% 14.9%
Washington 5,921 56.8% 5.3% 17.2% 4.8% 16.0%
West Virginia 1,538 56.2% 2.7% 19.0% 4.8% 17.3%
Wisconsin 4,867 60.9% 6.6% 19.3% 1.7% 11.6%
Wyoming 496 58.6% 7.2% 12.5% 2.8% 18.9%
( ) = Estimate has a large 95% confidence interval of +/- 5.0 – 7.9 percentage points.  Estimates with larger margins of error or with standard errors greater than 30% are not provided.
Table 6: Health Insurance Coverage of Children by State, 2011-2012
 

Percent Distribution by Coverage Type

Children (thousands)
Private Public Uninsured
  Employer Individual Medicaid  Other
 
United States 78,275 49.8% 4.0% 35.2% 1.5% 9.5%
Alabama 1,208 (46.4%) (39.7%) 8.0%
Alaska 202 (46.5%) (30.3%) 6.5% 14.0%
Arizona 1,714 (48.4%) 34.3% 13.8%
Arkansas 733 (36.6%) (50.7%) 8.5%
California 9,847 45.7% 4.4% 38.1% 1.1% 10.7%
Colorado 1,329 57.8% 5.7% 26.2% 1.8% 8.5%
Connecticut 868 64.6% 3.9% 26.4% 4.9%
Delaware 221 52.9% 35.2% 8.4%
District of Columbia 116 41.5% 50.0%
Florida 4,231 43.9% 4.8% 35.4% 2.2% 13.7%
Georgia 2,650 45.6% 3.4% 35.3% 3.6% 12.1%
Hawaii 328 (52.0%) (38.4%) 3.7% 4.0%
Idaho 455 (49.6%) 7.4% (31.1%) 11.0%
Illinois 3,249 50.7% 3.6% 38.5% 6.6%
Indiana 1,699 53.0% 3.0% 35.9% 7.6%
Iowa 772 54.3% 6.4% 32.4% 5.6%
Kansas 751 51.1% 5.4% 32.8% 8.0%
Kentucky 1,067 48.2% 2.9% 39.6% 7.6%
Louisiana 1,182 (41.4%) 45.4% 10.0%
Maine 285 52.0% 39.4% 5.1%
Maryland 1,429 59.0% 3.6% 26.8% 9.0%
Massachusetts 1,521 59.9% 3.1% 33.5% 3.2%
Michigan 2,416 55.1% 3.9% 35.5% 4.8%
Minnesota 1,360 62.1% 5.1% 25.4% 6.8%
Mississippi 809 (43.4%) (42.1%) 9.3%
Missouri 1,490 (54.8%) 4.7% (28.9%) (10.9%)
Montana 232 (45.9%) 5.1% (34.8%) 11.5%
Nebraska 481 55.2% 6.2% 25.3% 4.1% 9.2%
Nevada 699 51.0% 3.9% 23.5% 19.9%
New Hampshire 295 63.8% 5.1% 23.5% 6.7%
New Jersey 2,162 60.7% 4.2% 25.5% 7.9%
New Mexico 538 (35.1%) (46.9%) 13.2%
New York 4,508 50.0% 2.7% 40.6% 6.2%
North Carolina 2,449 47.6% 3.9% (37.3%) 2.4% 8.9%
North Dakota 163 61.7% 7.6% (24.6%) 5.1%
Ohio 2,816 51.3% 3.6% 35.7% 8.2%
Oklahoma 981 41.5% 4.8% 43.7% 8.4%
Oregon 914 (48.3%) 5.4% (38.6%) 6.8%
Pennsylvania 2,871 54.8% 3.7% 33.3% 7.8%
Rhode Island 237 55.3% 2.8% 33.9% 6.5%
South Carolina 1,139 47.6% 4.9% 34.6% 11.8%
South Dakota 213 (49.8%) 6.2% 34.5% 7.8%
Tennessee 1,563 45.4% 4.3% (39.6%) (4.1%) 6.7%
Texas 7,333 42.6% 3.3% 36.4% 1.4% 16.3%
Utah 939 64.3% 5.8% 18.8% 9.7%
Vermont 131 48.4% 3.6% 42.5% 4.6%
Virginia 1,992 59.9% 5.3% 23.4% 5.4% 6.1%
Washington 1,723 49.8% 3.9% 36.3% 3.2% 6.9%
West Virginia 408 (49.6%) (37.3%) 9.1%
Wisconsin 1,414 55.3% 3.8% 34.6% 5.6%
Wyoming 145 57.2% 5.1% 25.1% 10.4%
( ) = Estimate has a large 95% confidence interval of +/- 5.0 – 7.9 percentage points.  Estimates with larger margins of error or with standard errors greater than 30% are not provided.

Data Notes

The data in the tables is based on analysis of the Census Bureau’s March Supplement to the Current Population Survey (the CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement or ASEC) by the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured and the Urban Institute.  The CPS supplement is the primary source of annual health insurance coverage information in the United States.

With the release of 2012 data, the Census Bureau implemented population controls based on the 2010 Census and applied them to data collected between 2010 – 2012. While the impact of this change on most estimates was minimal, data in this report may not be directly comparable to that in reports from earlier years.

The ASEC asks respondents about their health insurance coverage throughout the previous calendar year. Respondents may report having more than one type of coverage.  In this analysis, individuals are sorted into only one category of insurance coverage using the following hierarchy:

    • Medicaid: Includes those covered by Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and those who have both Medicaid and another type of coverage, such as dually-eligible individuals who are also covered by Medicare.
    • Employer: Includes those covered by employer-sponsored coverage either through their own job or as a dependent.
    • Other Public: Includes those covered under the military or Veterans Administration as well as nonelderly Medicare enrollees.
    • Individual: Includes those covered by private insurance other than employer-sponsored coverage.
    • Uninsured: Includes those without health insurance and those who have coverage under the Indian Health Service only.

For example, a person having Medicaid coverage in the first half of the year but employer-based coverage in the last months of the year would be categorized as having Medicaid coverage in this analysis.

In this analysis, income (mostly categorized as a percent of the federal poverty level) is aggregated by “health insurance units.”  This unit includes members of the nuclear family who can be covered under one insurance policy:  the policy holder, spouse, children under age 19 and full-time students under age 23.  Other family members (e.g., grandparents) who may be living in the same household are not included; therefore, their incomes are not part of the income used to calculate poverty levels in this analysis.  The health insurance unit more accurately reflects the income actually available to people to buy health insurance, as well as the income that would be counted if they were to apply for a public insurance program.

The term “nonelderly” refers to all individuals under 65. In this analysis, “children” refers to all individuals under 19.

Conclusion