Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues…

Trending on kff Ebola Marketplaces Enrollment

Health and Access to Care and Coverage for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals in the U.S. « » The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

Health and Access to Care and Coverage for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals in the U.S.

Executive Summary
  1. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.

    ← Return to text

  2. Healthy People 2020: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.

    ← Return to text

  3. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report.

    ← Return to text

  4. DHHS. (2013). “HHS LGBT Issues Coordinating Committee 2013 Report.”

    ← Return to text

The LGBT Community
  1. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.

    ← Return to text

  2. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  3. National Center for Transgender Equality. (2009). Transgender Terminology.

    ← Return to text

  4. Gates, G.  (March 22, 2010).  LGBT Demographics:  Presentation to the Institute of Medicine.

    ← Return to text

  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Statistics Reports. (July 2014). Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  6. Gallup Politics. (October 18, 2012). Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT.

    ← Return to text

  7. Gates, G.  (2011).  How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?  The Williams Institute.

    ← Return to text

  8. Gallup Politics. (July 30, 2014). LGBT Americans Continue to Skew Democratic and Liberal.

    ← Return to text

  9. Gates, G. (2014). LGB/T Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys. The Williams Institute.

    ← Return to text

  10. Where data do not include transgender individuals, LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) is used.

    ← Return to text

  11. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.

    ← Return to text

  12. Coffman, KB, Coffman, LC & Marzilli Ericson, KM. (2013). The Size of the LGBT Population and the Magnitude of Anti-Gay Sentiment are Substantially Underestimated, NBER Working Paper No. 19508.

    ← Return to text

  13. Gates, G.  (2011).  How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?  The Williams Institute..

    ← Return to text

  14. Gallup Politics. (February 15, 2013). LGBT Percentage Highest in D.C., Lowest in North Dakota.

    ← Return to text

  15. Gallup Politics. (October 18, 2012). Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT.

    ← Return to text

  16. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  17. United States Census Bureau. (2012). Same-Sex Couples Main- Characteristics of Same-Sex Couple Households: 2012.

    ← Return to text

  18. Pew Research Center (June 2013). A Survey of LGBT Americans Attitudes, Experiences and Values in Changing Times.

    ← Return to text

  19. Badgett, M.V., Durso, L.E. & Schneebaum, A. (2013). New Patters of Poverty in the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual CommunityThe Williams Institute.

    ← Return to text

  20. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Harrison J, Herman JL, Keisling M. (2011). Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.

    ← Return to text

Health Challenges
  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report.

    ← Return to text

  2. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.

    ← Return to text

  3. Healthy People 2020: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.

    ← Return to text

  4. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report.

    ← Return to text

  5. Lick, D., Durso, L.E., & Johnson, K.L. (2013). Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities. Pers on Psychological Sci 8(5): 521-548.

    ← Return to text

  6. Denney, J.T., Gorman, B.K. & Barrera, C.B. (2013). Families, Resources, and Adult Health: Where do Sexual Minorities Fit? Journal of Health and Social Behavior 54(1): 46-63.

    ← Return to text

  7. Lick, D., Durso, L.E., & Johnson, K.L. (2013). Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities. Pers on Psychological Sci 8(5): 521-548.

    ← Return to text

  8. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Statistics Reports. (July 2014). Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  10. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (2009). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Persons in Massachusetts.

    ← Return to text

  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). HIV Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    ← Return to text

  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). HIV Among Black/African American Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    ← Return to text

  13. Kaiser Family Foundation, HIV/AIDS In The Lives Of Gay And Bisexual Men In The United States, 2014.

    ← Return to text

  14. Singh, S., et al. (2014).  Men Living with Diagnosed HIV Who Have Sex with Men:  Progress Along the Continuum of HIV Care – U.S., 2010.  MMWR.

    ← Return to text

  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). HIV Among Transgender People.

    ← Return to text

  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014).  Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV- Texas, 2012.

    ← Return to text

  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Syphilis & MSM- CDC Fact Sheet.

    ← Return to text

  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Viral Hepatitis and Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    ← Return to text

  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics.

    ← Return to text

  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). HPV and Men- Fact Sheet.

    ← Return to text

  21. Lick, D., Durso, L.E., & Johnson, K.L. (2013). Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities. Pers on Psychological Sci 8(5): 521-548.

    ← Return to text

  22. Cochran, S.D., Sullivan, J.G. & Mays, V.M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71(1): 53-61.

    ← Return to text

  23. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.

    ← Return to text

  24. Ford, Z. (December 3, 2012). APA Revises Manual: Being Transgender is no Longer a Mental Disorder. Think Progress.

    ← Return to text

  25. Lick, D., Durso, L.E., & Johnson, K.L. (2013). Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities. Pers on Psychological Sci 8(5): 521-548.

    ← Return to text

  26. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2012). Top Health Issues for LGBT Populations: Information & Resources Kit.

    ← Return to text

  27. Lee J, Griffin G, Melvin C (2009). Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA, 1987 to May 2007: a systematic review. Tob Control. 18:275-282.

    ← Return to text

  28. Cochran, S.D., Sullivan, J.G. & Mays, V.M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71(1): 53-61.

    ← Return to text

  29. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Harrison J, Herman JL, Keisling M. (2011). Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.

    ← Return to text

  30. Ostrow, D.G. & Stall, R. (2008) Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among gay and bisexual men. In Wolitski, R.J., Stall, R., & Valdiserri, R.O., Unequal opportunity: Health disparities affecting gay and bisexual men in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

    ← Return to text

  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Sexual Violence: Consequences.

    ← Return to text

  32. Human Rights Campaign, (2011).  A Guide to State Level Advocacy Following Enactment of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act.

    ← Return to text

  33. Pew Research Center (June 2013). A Survey of LGBT Americans Attitudes, Experiences and Values in Changing Times.

    ← Return to text

  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation.

    ← Return to text

  35. U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation, (2012).  Hate Crime Statistics 2011.

    ← Return to text

  36. Herek, G.M. (2009). Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences Among Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

    ← Return to text

  37. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  38. Lombardi E, et al. (2002). Gender violence: Transgender experiences with violence and discrimination. J Homosex 42(1).

    ← Return to text

  39. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2013).  Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2012.

    ← Return to text

  40. Human Rights Campaign. (2012). National Coming Out Day Youth Report.

    ← Return to text

  41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health: Youth.

    ← Return to text

  42. The Williams Institute. (2012). Serving Our Youth: Findings from a National Survey of Service Providers Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth who are Homeless or At Risk of Becoming Homeless.

    ← Return to text

  43. Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network. (2012). 2011 National School Climate Survey.

    ← Return to text

  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009.

    ← Return to text

  45. Personal communication with Kellan Baker, Center for American Progress, December 6, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  46. Perry Undem Research/Communication, LGBT Community and the ACA, Presentation September 12, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  47. Center for American Progress. (2013). LGBT Communities and the Affordable Care Act: Findings from a National Survey.

    ← Return to text

  48. Clift, J & Kirby J. (2012). Health care access and perceptions of provider care among individuals in Same-Sex Couples: Findings from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Journal of Homosexuality 59(6): 839-850.

    ← Return to text

  49. Buchmueller, T.& Carpenter C. (2010). Disparities in health insurance coverage, access, and outcomes for individuals in same-sex versus different-sex relationships, 2000-2007. American Journal of Public Health 100(3): 489-495.

    ← Return to text

  50. Kerker, B.D., Mostashari, F. & Thorpe, L. (2006). Health care access and utilization among women who have sex with women: Sexual behavior and identity. Journal of Urban Health 83(5): 970-979.

    ← Return to text

  51. Cochran, SD, et al. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventive screening behaviors among lesbians and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health 91(4): 591-597.

    ← Return to text

  52. National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. (2011). Injustice at Every Turn:  A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.

    ← Return to text

  53. Center for American Progress. (2012). FAQ: Health Insurance Needs for Transgender Americans.

    ← Return to text

  54. Lambda Legal, “When Health Care Isn’t Caring:  Lambda Legal’s Survey on Discrimination Against LGBT People and People Living with HIV”.

    ← Return to text

  55. The Fenway Institute. (2008). The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.

    ← Return to text

  56. Lambda Legal, “When Health Care Isn’t Caring:  Lambda Legal’s Survey on Discrimination Against LGBT People and People Living with HIV”.

    ← Return to text

  57. Movement Advancement Project. (2009). Advancing Transgender Equality.

    ← Return to text

  58. Tesar, C. & Rovi, S. (1998). Survey on Curriculum on Homosexuality/ Bisexuality in Departments of Family Medicine. Fam Medicine 30(4): 283-287.

    ← Return to text

  59. Corliss, H.L., Shankle, M.D. & Moyer, M.B. (2007). Research, Curricula, and Resources Related to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health in U.S. Schools of Public Health. American Journal of Public Health 97(6): 1023-1027.

    ← Return to text

  60. GLMA, Health Professionals Advancing LGBT Equality. (2013). Compendium of Health Profession Association LGBT Policy & Position Statements.

    ← Return to text

  61. World Professional Association for Transgender Health (2012). Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People.

    ← Return to text

  62. The Joint Commission. (2010). Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care:  A Roadmap for Hospitals.

    ← Return to text

Impact of Policies on Coverage and Access to Care
  1. DHHS. (2013). “HHS LGBT Issues Coordinating Committee 2013 Report”.

    ← Return to text

  2. Center for American Progress. (2013). How New Coverage Options Affect LGBT Communities.

    ← Return to text

  3. Lambda Legal, “When Health Care Isn’t Caring:  Lambda Legal’s Survey on Discrimination Against LGBT People and People Living with HIV”.

    ← Return to text

  4. Baker, K. & Cray, A. (2012). Ensuring Benefits Parity and Gender Identity Nondiscrimination in Essential Health Benefits.

    ← Return to text

  5. Human Rights Campaign. Health Insurance Discrimination for Transgender People.

    ← Return to text

  6. Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register 77(59): March 27, 2012.

    ← Return to text

  7. Movement Advancement Project.  Non-Discrimination Laws.

    ← Return to text

  8. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  9. Department of Health and Human Services. (2013). HHS LGBT Issues Coordinating Committee 2013 Report.

    ← Return to text

  10. The Fenway Institute. (2012). Policy Focus: How to gather data on sexual orientation and gender identity in clinical settings.

    ← Return to text

  11. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding.

    ← Return to text

  12. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Guidance on the Extension of Benefits to Married Gay and Lesbian Federal Employees, Annuitants, and their Families, June 28, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  13. Department of Labor, Technical Release No. 2013-04, September 18, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  14. Internal Revenue Service, Rev. Rul. 2013-17.

    ← Return to text

  15. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  16. Department of Health and Human Services, Guidance on Internal Revenue Ruling 2013-17 and Eligibility for Advance Payments of the Premium Tax Credit and Cost-Sharing Reductions, September 27, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  17. Department of Health and Human Services, State Health Officer # 13-006, September 27, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  18. Human Rights Campaign.  Marriage Center.

    ← Return to text

  19. Department of Health and Human Services, Departmental Appeals Board, Appellate Division. NCD 140.3, Transsexual Surgery, Docket No. A-13-87, Decision No. 2576, May 30, 2014.

    ← Return to text

  20. Human Rights Campaign. (2013).  Corporate Equality Index.

    ← Return to text

  21. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, Fact Sheet #28F: Qualifying Reasons for Leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act, August 2013.

    ← Return to text

  22. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division. Federal Register 79(124): June 27, 2014.

    ← Return to text

  23. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Nondiscrimination Laws Map, June 21, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  24. Department of Health and Human Services, Medicare finalizes new rules to require equal visitation rights for all hospital patients, November 17, 2010.

    ← Return to text

  25. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Details for Title: Reminder: Access and Visitation Rights in Long Term Care (LTC) Facilities.

    ← Return to text

Tables
  1. Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register 77(59): March 27, 2012.

    ← Return to text

  2. Department of Health and Human Services, HHS announces first guidance implementing Supreme Court’s decision on the Defense of Marriage Act, August 29, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  3. Department of Health and Human Services, Guidance on Internal Revenue Ruling 2013-17 and Eligibility for Advance Payments of the Premium Tax Credit and Cost-Sharing Reductions, September 27, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  4. Department of Health and Human Services, State Health Officer # 13-006, September 27, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  5. U.S. Department of the Treasury, All Legal Same-Sex Marriages Will be Recognized for Federal Tax Purposes, August 29, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  6. Department of Labor, Technical Release No. 2013-04, September 18, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  7. Secretary of Defense, Extending Benefits to Same-Sex Spouses of Military Members, August 13, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  8. Department of Justice, Attorney General Holder Announces Move to Extend Veterans Benefits to Same-Sex Married Couples, September 4, 2013.

    ← Return to text

  9. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, Fact Sheet #28F: Qualifying Reasons for Leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act, August 2013.

    ← Return to text

  10. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division. Federal Register 79(124): June 27, 2014.

    ← Return to text

  11. Office of the Press Secretary, Presidential Memorandum- Hospital Visitation, April 15, 2010.

    ← Return to text

  12. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Details for Title: Reminder: Access and Visitation Rights in Long Term Care (LTC) Facilities.

    ← Return to text

  13. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Spousal Impoverishment.

    ← Return to text

  14. National Institutes of Health. (January 4, 2013).  Statement by NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., on opportunities for advancing LGBT health research.

    ← Return to text