In recent years, the U.S. government has paid increasing attention to the health and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals around the world, utilizing both multilateral and bilateral channels. Still, however, many LGBT individuals continue to face stigma, discrimination, and violence, both within and outside of the health sector, which compromise their ability to access needed health services and can adversely affect health status. Moreover, in many countries, the barriers faced by LGBT individuals include discriminatory laws and policies. To explore opportunities and challenges facing the U.S. government in this arena, the Kaiser Family Foundation convened two roundtable discussions of high-level experts working on global LGBT health and rights as well as those working more broadly on global health. This issue brief summarizes the main points of discussion raised by roundtable participants, focusing on opportunities, challenges, and potential next steps for the U.S. government to consider in addressing the health needs of LGBT individuals around the world. It also provides an overview of global LGBT health issues, and reviews U.S. government efforts to address global LGBT health to date.