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Beyond Health Care: The Role of Social Determinants in Promoting Health and Health Equity

Issue Brief
  1. David Squires and Chloe Anderson, U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective: Spending, Use of Services, Prices, and Health in 13 Countries (New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund, October 2015), http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/issue-brief/2015/oct/1819_squires_us_hlt_care_global_perspective_oecd_intl_brief_v3.pdf.

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  2. Elizabeth H. Bradley and Lauren A. Taylor, The American Health Care Paradox Why Spending More is Getting Us Less (New York, NY:  Public Affairs, 2013).

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  3. J. Michael McGinnis and William H. Foege, “Actual Causes of Death in the United States,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 270, no. 18 (Nov. 10, 1993):2207-2212, doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03510180077038 and Ali H. Mokdad et al., “Actual Causes of Death in the United States,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 291, no. 10 (March 10, 2004):1238-1245, doi:10.1001/jama.291.10.1238.

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  4. Steven A. Schroeder, “We Can Do Better — Improving the Health of the American People,” New England Journal of Medicine 357 (Sept. 20, 2007):1221-1228, doi:10.1056/NEJMsa073350.

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  5. Mark R. Cullen, Clint Cummins, and Victor R. Fuchs, “Geographic and Racial Variation in Premature Mortality in the U.S.: Analyzing the Disparities,” PLoS ONE 7, no. 4 (April 17, 2012): e32930, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032930.

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  6. Michael Marmot et al., “Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health,” The Lancet 372, no. 9650 (Nov. 8, 2008):1661–1669.

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  7. Sandro Galea et al., “Estimated Deaths Attributable to Social Factors in the United States” American Journal of Public Health 101, no. 8 (August 2011):1456–1465, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.300086.

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  8. Michael Marmot et al., “Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health,” The Lancet 372, no. 9650 (Nov. 8, 2008):1661–1669.

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  9. Gopal K. Singh, Mohammad Siahpush, and Michael D. Kogan, “Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions, Built Environments, and Childhood Obesity,” Health Affairs 29, no. 3 (March 2010):503-512, doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0730.

    Conditions, Built Environments, And Childhood Obesity. Health Affairs. 29(3):  503-512.

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  10. Paul A. Jargowsky, The Architecture of Segregation: Civil Unrest, the Concentration of Poverty, and Public Policy, (The Century Foundation, August 9, 2015), http://www.tcf.org/assets/downloads/Jargowsky_ArchitectureofSegregation.pdf.

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  11. Vincent J. Felitti et al., “Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 14, no. 4 (May 1998):245–258.

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  12. Raj Chetty et al., “Where is the Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 129, no. 4 (Sept. 14, 2014): 1553-1623, doi: 10.1093/qje/qju022.

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  13. National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities: Health Equity and Health Disparities, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=34.

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  14. HealthyPeople.gov, About Healthy People, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx.

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  15. 1854 Broad Street Cholera Outbreak,” Wikipedia, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak.

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  16. MB Geisz, A Coalition Creates a Citywide Care Management System (Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, June 2014), http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2011/01/a-coalition-creates-a-citywide-care-management-system-.html.

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  17. Policy Link and The California Endowment, Why Place Matters: Building a Movement for Healthy Communities (Policy Link, 2007), http://www.policylink.org/sites/default/files/WHYPLACEMATTERS_FINAL.PDF and “Harlem Children’s Zone-Our Results,” Harlem Children’s Zone, 2015, http://hcz.org/results/.

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  18. “The Colorado Health Foundation: Publications/Healthy Places,” The Colorado Health Foundation, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://www.coloradohealth.org/HealthyPlaces/.

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  19. Policy Link, The Food Trust, and the Reinvestment Fund, The Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI): An Innovative Public-Private Partnership Sparking Economic Development and Improving Health (Policy Link, April 2015), http://www.healthyfoodaccess.org/sites/default/files/HFFI%20Fact%20Sheet_four%20pager-051315.pdf.

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  20. The Food Trust, Healthier Corner Stores: Positive Impacts and Profitable Changes (Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, 2014), http://thefoodtrust.org/uploads/media_items/healthier-corner-stores-positive-impacts-and-profitable-changes.original.pdf.

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  21. “Promoting Health Equity through Education Programs and Policies,” Guide to Community Preventive Services, last updated Oct. 13, 2015, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://www.thecommunityguide.org/healthequity/education/index.html.

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  22. The Food Trust, Healthier Corner Stores: Positive Impacts and Profitable Changes (Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, 2014), http://thefoodtrust.org/uploads/media_items/healthier-corner-stores-positive-impacts-and-profitable-changes.original.pdf.

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  23. National Farm to School Network, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://www.farmtoschool.org/.

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  24. Caroline Franck, Sonia M. Grandi, and Mark J. Eisenberg, “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 45, no.3 (Sept. 2013):327-333, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2013.04.010.

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  25. Linda Rudolph et al., Health in All Policies: A Guide for State and Local Governments (Washington, DC and Oakland, CA: American Public Health Association and Public Health Institute, 2013),  https://www.apha.org/topics-and-issues/healthy-communities/health-in-all-policies;  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Division of Community Health, A Practitioner’s Guide for Advancing Health Equity: Community Strategies for Preventing Chronic Disease (Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013), http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/pdf/HealthEquityGuide.pdf; Guide to Community Preventive Services, http://www.thecommunityguide.org/index.html; Institute of Medicine, Applying a Health Lens to Decision Making in Non-health Sectors: Workshop Summary (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014), http://iom.nationalacademies.org/reports/2014/applying-a-health-lens-to-decision-making-in-non-health-sectors.aspx; and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Time to Act: Investing in the Health of Our Children and Communities (Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Jan. 2014), http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2014/01/recommendations-from-the-rwjf-commission-to-build-a-healthier-am.html.

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  26. California Health in All Policies Task Force, California Strategic Growth Council, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://sgc.ca.gov/s_hiap.php.

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  27. King County: Equity and Social Justice: Vision, King County, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://www.kingcounty.gov/elected/executive/equity-social-justice/vision.aspx.

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  28. “In It Together--Building a Culture of Health: A message from Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, President and CEO,” Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, accessed Oct. 28, 2015, http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/annual-reports/presidents-message-2015.html.

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  29. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, The State Innovation Models (SIM) Program: A Look at Round 2 Grantees, (Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, Sept. 2015), http://kff.org/medicaid/fact-sheet/the-state-innovation-models-sim-program-a-look-at-round-2-grantees/.

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  30. Ibid.

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  31. Ibid.

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  32. State of Connecticut, Connecticut Healthcare Innovation Plan, Executive Summary (State of Connecticut, Dec. 2013), http://www.healthreform.ct.gov/ohri/lib/ohri/sim/plan_documents/innovation_plan_executive_summary_v82.pdf.

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  33. “Coordinated Care: The Oregon Difference,” Oregon Health Policy Board, Oregon Health Authority, accessed Oct. 27, 2015, http://www.oregon.gov/oha/ohpb/pages/health-reform/ccos.aspx.

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  34. Chris Demars, Oregon Bridges the Gap between Health Care and Community-Based Health (Health Affairs Blog, Feb. 12, 2015), http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2015/02/12/oregon-bridges-the-gap-between-health-care-and-community-based-health/.

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  35. Ibid.

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  36. Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing, Creating a Culture of Change, Accountable Care Collaborative 2014 Annual Report (Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing), https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/Accountable%20Care%20Collaborative%202014%20Annual%20Report.pdf.

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  37. Vernon Smith et al., Medicaid in an Era of Health & Delivery System Reform: Results from a 50-State Medicaid Budget Survey for State Fiscal Years 2014 and 2015 (Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, Oct. 2015), http://kff.org/report-section/medicaid-in-an-era-of-health-delivery-system-reform-delivery-system-reforms/.

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  38. Vikki Wachino, CMCS Informational Bulletin: Coverage of Housing-Related Activities and Services for Individuals with Disabilities (Washington, DC: Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, June 26, 2015), http://www.medicaid.gov/federal-policy-guidance/downloads/CIB-06-26-2015.pdf.

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  39. Ibid.

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  40. Jason A. Helgerson, Redesign Medicaid in New York State, Medicaid Redesign and Its Focus on Super Utilizers, Innovative Strategies to Address Social Determinants of Health (NYS Department of Health, Aug. 2013), http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/2013/1308SuperUtilizersHelgerson.pdf.

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  41. CSH, Integrating Housing in State Medicaid Policy (CSH, April 2014), http://www.csh.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/State_Health_Reform_Summary.pdf.

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  42. National Association of Community Health Centers, Health Centers Addressing the Social Determinants of Health, Protocol for Responding to and Assessing Patients Assets, Risks, and Experiences (National Association of Community Health Centers, August 2015), http://www.nachc.com/client//PRAPARE_Abstract_Tool_08_151.pdf.

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  43. “Linking Clinical Care with Community Supports (Linkages),” Michigan Primary Care Association, accessed Oct. 27, 2015, http://www.mpca.net/?page=linkages.

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  44. The Menges Group, Positively Impacting Social Determinants of Health, How Safety Net Health Plans Lead the Way (Association for Community Affiliated Plans, June 2014), http://www.communityplans.net/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=wcPKMzqiacQ%3d&tabid=214&mid=718&forcedownload=true.

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  45. Ibid.

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  46. Ibid.

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